Source: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Key Takeaways: Continuous Glucose Monitoring improved outcomes more than intermittent testing of blood glucose in 41,753 patients with insulin-treated diabetes.
“Our real-world study found that in patients with insulin-treated diabetes, initiating a continuous glucose monitor substantially improved blood glucose control and cut the rate of emergency room visits for hypoglycemia in half.”1
– Andrew J. Karter, PhD, Senior Research Scientist at Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
1Shaffer R. Real-time CGM lowers HbA1c, reduces ED visits in insulin-treated diabetes. Endocrine Today. June 2021. https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20210607/realtime-cgm-lowers-hba1c-reduces-ed-visits-in-insulintreated-diabetes. Accessed June 24, 2021.
Source: Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Key Takeaway: The Landmark study demonstrated significant glycemic and QoL benefits for first time CGM use among individuals using intensive insulin therapy to manage either T1D or T2D. After approximately 12 weeks of Dexcom G6 use, participants had a mean absolute reduction in HbA1c levels of 1.1%, and more than half of those with initial HbA1c values >7% experienced absolute HbA1c reductions of >1%. The reduction in HbA1c observed in Landmark was similar for patients with T1D and T2D and was more pronounced for participants with higher baseline HbA1c, consistent with observations from the DIAMOND randomized controlled trial. Significant reductions in diabetes distress and hypoglycemic concerns were also observed. In the Landmark study, there was no standardized training or intervention at CGM initiation, suggesting that the glycemic benefits can be realized without formal instruction.
Source: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Key Takeaway: The role of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) is an essential component of telemedicine visits for people with diabetes. This observational study demonstrated that people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participating in a virtual diabetes clinic can successfully insert and use Dexcom rtCGM without in-office training. The use of rtCGM was associated with a significant improvement in HbA1c at 10 months in those not meeting the ADA treatment target, independent of insulin use. In addition, there was a large shift in the percentage of participants meeting the HEDIS HbA1c target of <8.0% at follow-up; this may have important clinical and economic implications.
Chart: Percentage of Participants Achieving HEDIS HbA1c Treatment Target (HbA1c <8.0%) Before and After rtCGM Use
Key Takeaway: Real-world data from the German/Austrian Prospective Diabetes Follow-Up Registry showed real-time continuous glucose monitoring was associated with a higher percentage of Time-in-Range and improved metabolic stability as compared to intermittent scanning continuous glucose monitoring.
Key Takeaway: In a Medicaid population of youth with Type 1 Diabetes, uninterrupted continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use was associated with improvements in hemoglobin A1c. Interruptions in use—primarily due to gaps in insurance coverage of CGM—were associated with increased hemoglobin A1c, supporting initial and ongoing CGM coverage in high-risk, publicly insured demographics.
Key Takeaway: Recent data from a prospective, randomized study conducted by Intermountain Health suggests that real-time CGM can reduce healthcare utilization and decrease the overall cost of care compared to SMBG. Participants reported that real-time CGM data were helpful in modifying their nutrition, physical activity, stress, and medication adherence.
Source: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Key takeaway: A real-life observational study demonstrated the effectiveness of flash glucose monitoring (FGM) in participants with diabetes over a 12 month period. Data from the Netherlands Nationwide Registry showed the use of FGM results in improved well-being, decreased disease burden, and is associated with a 0.4% reduction of HbA1c after 12 months (p < 0.001). Results from a patient-reported outcome measures questionnaire revealed significant reductions in work absenteeism and diabetes-related hospital admissions.
Source: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Key Takeaway: CGM initiated within the first year of T1D diagnosis was effective in lowering and maintaining A1C for 2.5 years and reduced the frequency of ED visits related to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia irrespective of insulin delivery method.
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Key Takeaway: Nationwide reimbursement of real-time CGM improved HbA1c, fear of hypoglycemia, and QOL as well as economic indicators including work absenteeism and hospital admissions for acute diabetes complications.
|The Value of rtCGM: Reduction in Hospitalizations and Work Absenteeism|
|Pre-Reimbursement for rtCGM||Post-Reimbursement for rtCGM||P Value|
|(n = 496)||(n = 379)|
|Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia and/or ketoacidosis||77 (16%)||14 (4%)||<0.0005|
|Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia||59 (11%)||12 (3%)||<0.0005|
|Hospitalizations due to ketoacidosis||23 (5%)||4 (1%)||0.092|
|Work absenteesim*||123 (25%)||36 (9%)||<0.0005|
|Days (per 100 patient years) of|
|Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia and/or ketoacidosis||53.5||17.8||<0.0005|
|Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia||38.5||12.5||0.001|
|Hospitalizations due to ketoacidosis||14.9||5.3||0.220|
Data are n (%).
*Work absenteeism of at least half a day. Patient-reported hospital admissions were validated by clinicians.
Reference: Charleer S, et al. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(3):1224–1232
Reference: Charleer S, Mathieu C, Nobels F, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(3):1224-1232.