Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Education for Managed Care, Pharmacy, and Payer Professionals

Real-World Evidence

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Real-World Data from the German/Austrian Prospective Diabetes Follow-Up Registry


Key Takeaway: Real-world data from the German/Austrian Prospective Diabetes Follow-Up Registry showed real-time continuous glucose monitoring was associated with a higher percentage of Time-in-Range and improved metabolic stability as compared to intermittent scanning continuous glucose monitoring.

Uninterrupted Continuous Glucose Monitoring Access is Associated with a Decrease in HbA1c in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes and Public Insurance


Key Takeaway: In a Medicaid population of youth with Type 1 Diabetes, uninterrupted continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use was associated with improvements in hemoglobin A1c. Interruptions in use—primarily due to gaps in insurance coverage of CGM—were associated with increased hemoglobin A1c, supporting initial and ongoing CGM coverage in high-risk, publicly insured demographics.

Demonstrating the Clinical Impact of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Within an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System


Key Takeaway:  Recent data from a prospective, randomized study conducted by Intermountain Health suggests that real-time CGM can reduce healthcare utilization and decrease the overall cost of care compared to SMBG. Participants reported that real-time CGM data were helpful in modifying their nutrition, physical activity, stress, and medication adherence.  

Improved well-being and decreased disease burden after 1-year use of flash glucose monitoring (FLARE-NL4)

Source: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care

Key takeaway: A real-life observational study demonstrated the effectiveness of flash glucose monitoring (FGM) in participants with diabetes over a 12 month period.  Data from the Netherlands Nationwide Registry showed the use of FGM results in improved well-being, decreased disease burden, and is associated with a 0.4% reduction of HbA1c after 12 months (p < 0.001).  Results from a patient-reported outcome measures questionnaire revealed significant reductions in work absenteeism and diabetes-related hospital admissions. 

Glycemic Outcomes with Early Initiation of Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Recently Diagnosed Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Source: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics

Key Takeaway: CGM initiated within the first year of T1D diagnosis was effective in lowering and maintaining A1C for 2.5 years and reduced the frequency of ED visits related to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia irrespective of insulin delivery method.

Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control, Acute Admissions, and Quality of Life: A Real-World Study

Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Key Takeaway: Nationwide reimbursement of real-time CGM improved HbA1c, fear of hypoglycemia, and QOL as well as economic indicators including work absenteeism and hospital admissions for acute diabetes complications.

The Value of rtCGM: Reduction in Hospitalizations and Work Absenteeism
  Pre-Reimbursement for rtCGM Post-Reimbursement for rtCGM P Value
  (n = 496) (n = 379)  
Patients with      
    Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia and/or ketoacidosis 77 (16%) 14 (4%) <0.0005
    Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia 59 (11%) 12 (3%) <0.0005
    Hospitalizations due to ketoacidosis 23 (5%) 4 (1%) 0.092
    Work absenteesim* 123 (25%) 36 (9%) <0.0005
Days (per 100 patient years) of       
    Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia and/or ketoacidosis 53.5 17.8 <0.0005
    Hospitalizations due to hypoglycemia 38.5 12.5 0.001
    Hospitalizations due to ketoacidosis 14.9 5.3 0.220
    Work absenteeism 494.5 233.8 0.001

Data are n (%).

*Work absenteeism of at least half a day. Patient-reported hospital admissions were validated by clinicians.

Reference: Charleer S, et al. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(3):1224–1232

The Value of rtCGM: Improved Population Glycemic Control

Reference: Charleer S, Mathieu C, Nobels F, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(3):1224-1232.